The creation of the Universe is sustained by actions or Karma. Where there is expression, there is invariably vibration and behind the vibration there is action. Where the active capacity is dormant, motionless or quiescent, there are no waves, and there is no expanding evolution of life and spirit. Under these circumstances the Cosmic consciousness is lying in blessedness as if it were a tranquil, serene and boundless ocean. When the surface of this ocean is agitated by a gust of wind, surging waves are created. Hence, when the unmanifested Cosmic Consciousness is tossed by Prakrti, the refulgence of expression begins. This Universe, full of fleeting shows and wonders, is the crude manifestation of Cosmic Consciousness. This crudeness results from the domination of Prakrti over Purus'a. In situations where Cosmic Consciousness is less intense, the influence of Prakrti is proportionately more pronounced. The bondage of Prakrti on finite objects is much greater than the bondage of Prakrti is in the limitless field of activities of Universal Purus'a, otherwise called Sagun'a Brahma. What, after all, is a piece of stone? It is a finite manifestation of Purus'a where tamogun'a is extremely dominant and as a result of this, the Consciousness in the shape of Purus'a appears crude. Prudent people will consider Purus'a dominated by tamah as crude or Jad'a. Names are assigned to different objects according to the variation in the degree of crudeness of consciousness. Every object in this perceptible world is pervaded by tamogun'a for the simple reason that nothing is free from the bondage of Prakrti. Why are human beings said to be the highest creature? It is because the Consciousness of human beings is very highly developed. Humanas desire to attain happiness from within the subtle entity rather than from the crude objects. This insatiable hunger leads human beings towards divine happiness. In those unit beings where the consciousness is moderately developed, that is to say, where the entire consciousness has not been overpowered by crudeness, there is the endeavor for self-evolution and for achieving happiness. The strong display of rajogun'a in Prakrti is an outcome of this effort. For the sake of self-preservation, one cannot remain in the state of inaction, because inaction is indicative of death, not of life. Now, the question may arise that since every entity is composed of the three gun'as does not the dead body also contain them? All the signs of what is called crudeness exist in the dead body; tamogun'a predominates while sattva and rajah are only indistinctly expressed. Therefore, there is no propensity for action and far less the capability for action. Thus we arrive at the conclusion that everything existent is pervaded by the three gun'as, but in accordance with the variation of their proportion, Prakrti is dynamic in certain situations and inert in others. According to both Science and Philosophy, every action has a reaction which is co-existent with the original action, whether the action be a physical one or only a psychic vibration. For example, suppose you have stolen something with your own hands. In this instance there is no doubt that you have committed an act of theft. But supposing that for fear of public scandal or state punishment, you only conceived of the theft but did not carry it out. Alternatively you arranged for the theft to be committed by another person. Are you not still committing this theft from behind the scene? If you think that you will not reap the consequences for a theft committed mentally, you are wrong. This potentiality of reaction or Sam'ska'ra that you get through physical or mental action, has to be endured by some other act inevitably. But when you perform one act which is reaping the consequence of a previous act, you are not acting independently. In such a case you act mechanically, propelled by the reaction of the previous act, and you may be obliged to do some undesirable acts that bring to you disgrace, accusation and affliction. You upbraid yourself and regret at leisure for it. It is as if your hands and feet are fettered and you are unable to avoid such actions. So long as you consider your identity separate from Supreme Brahma and so long as you are engrossed with the individual "I", you will have to continue to perform actions and inevitably earn their reactions, which in potential form are known as Sam'ska'ras. In order that these seeds of reaction can germinate, you will have to select a new physical form. In other words, you will have to subject yourself to the cycle of birth and death in this revolution of Karma, like the oil-mill bullocks. Both Moks'a and Mukti (emancipation and liberation) will remain remote from you, beyond your access. If you make your mean ego the object of your A'tman, your actions will be a source of your enjoyment but not of your salvation. "A'sana ma're kya'hua', jo gayii na man kii a'sh jokolhu'ka boelko, ghar hi krosh paca's" Does not the oil-mill bullock move on? It keeps going around in circles all the day. But though it may walk more than fifty miles, it does not advance in the least, since it is tied to the pillar of the oil-expressor. Likewise, those working with the Unit `I' as their object are similar to the bullock of the oil-expelling machine. "Ya'vanna ks'iiyate karma shubham'ca'shubhameva ca ta'vanna ja'yate moks'o nrn'a'm' kalpashataerapi Yatha' laohamayaeh pa'shaeh pa'shaeh svarn'anmayaerapi tatha' baddho bhavejjiivo karma'bhishca'shubhaeshubhaeh (Tantra) In other words, until the actions, whether good or bad are annihilated, human beings cannot attain salvation or Moks'a. Can the gold chain be looser and less torturing than the iron chain to someone in bondage? Similarly, the bondage of bad actions is exactly as tight as the bondage of good actions. "Na'bhuktam' ks'iiyate karma kalpakot'ishataerapi Avashyameva bhoktavyam' krtam' karma shubha'shubham" Therefore, for salvation or emancipation, it is necessary to be liberated from the bondage of Sam'ska'ras. The question is, how to attain salvation? When it is essential to act for maintaining one's existence, how is it possible to avoid the cycle of action and reaction? It is known from philosophic propositions that the attainment of Mukti (liberation) or Moks'a (salvation) is possible only through spiritual practices or sa'dhana'. It therefore follows that there is certainly some means to attain liberation from sam'ska'ras. There are three processes for attaining freedom from the bondage of action: (1) relinquishing any desire for the fruits of action, or Phala'ka'm'ks'a' Tya'ga, (2) Abandoning the vanity of performing an act, or Kartrtva'bhima'na Tya'ga, and (3) surrendering all actions unto Brahma. All of these have to be followed in the individual life, but it must be kept in mind that they all have to be strictly observed. To be more explicit, these rules are the different aspects of one and the same process. Relinquising the desire for the fruits of actions Phala'ka'm'ks'a' Tya'ga: -- A man performs each act with a particular objective or other in mind. No act can be accomplished without an objective. For example, someone is studying for an M.A. then their aim is to graduate? But if he or she only broods over the aim and does not strive to attain it, can they be successful? What is the significance of reflecting over or striving to achieve an aim? For instance, suppose a piece of iron is tossed upwards. The higher it will go, the more it will gain the force of coming down, and as soon as its force for going up is exhausted, it will come down with the same force as it went up. This is natural, an invariable law of Prakrti. Similarly, with every thought or deed the reactions in potentiality will inevitably have to be accumulated. As soon as any act is accomplished, the growth of the potentiality of reactions is stopped and this potential energy is invariably transformed into the reactions of the actions performed. Therefore, it has been said in the Giita' -- "Karman'yeva'dhika'raste ma' phales'u kada'cana" Human beings can only control their deeds but not the fruits thereof. When we have no command over the results of our actions, it is vain to brood over the attainment of certain objectives. There is no use in brooding. Is it not reasonable to keep on working only for the accomplishment of an act? To continue to work in this way is to relinquish the desire for the fruits of action or Phala'ka'm'ks'a tya'ga.