Introduction : The word ārya and anārya occur in vedic documents 1 and classicalSanskrit language documents 2 which are dated prior to Sanskrit grammarian Pā ini. These words also occur in post Pā inian period documents also. The cognate forms of these words occur in non-Sanskrit languages 3 also, prior to Pā ini. The word ‘anārya’ (and in tune with it, the word ārya) is interpreted in two distinct shades of meaning by the traditional and modern scholars in these documents. Traditional scholars prefer to go by the meaning ‘anārya’= ‘not noble’, without any flavor of race, cast, ethnicity, in all the documents, throughout the past and post period of Pā ini. Modern scholars prefer to go by the meaning ‘anārya= a race, ethnic group opposed to āryan’s’, with a flavor of race, cast, ethnicity in the documents, throughout the past period of Pā ini.These two meanings are incompatible. This difference in meaning has an impact on the following points: (a) understanding of pre-pā inian sources in the light of rules of Sanskrit (bhā hā / chandas) (b) construction of the history ofvedic traditions (c) explaining the post pā inian understanding of large number of documents / pā inian rules involving the word ārya for compounding. 1.1.2 Genesis of the problem Let us look a little more deeply in to the two shades of meaning and deeper vestiges built in it. 1.1.2A: The shade of meaning 4 preferred by the modern scholars carries a deeper understanding on the foundation of modern linguistic studies. According to this team, ‘ārya’ is an ethnic group, which is opposed to the tribes like ‘dasyu’. The word ‘anārya’ means ‘non-āryan’ = one who does not belong to the āryan ethnic group. Anārya is taken to connote commonly all major and minor groups (dāsa, dasyu, śhūdra’s, unreligious person, non-religious person, next to sorcerers, non-humans like dānava, demons, kīka a, anudruhyu, yadu turvasu, pūru) which are contrary (opponend) to the Ārya’s in the ig. The appearance of such names among the groups belonging to the Indo-Aryans indicates, that ārya/anārya does not mean a particular ''people'' or even a particular 'racial' group but all those who had joined the tribes speaking Vedic Sanskrit and adhering to their cultural norms (such as ritual, poetry, etc.) The Others such as the kīka a (RV 3.53), who inhabit the greater Panjab together with the ārya, are even declared ''not to be fit to deal with cows.'' They form the amorphous group of the dasyu ''the foreigner, the enemy.'' While the ārya frequently fight among themselves, their main enemy are the dasyu who are portrayed in typical half-mythical fashion as ''foreign devils'' and demons. 1.1.2B: The meaning preferred by the traditional scholars carries a deeper reliance on the sources of traditional pā inian grammar, and Sanskrit lexicon amarako ha (dated circa 500 CE or earlier, but certainly post pā inian) and the belief on the accuracy/ authenticity of transmission of traditional texts and their understanding. The prime meaning of the word ‘ĀRYA’ is ‘nobility, related to birth’ without any limitation / qualifier of race, caste, ethnicity. The listed synonyms 5 of the word confirm this. 1.1.2C: It may be of interest at this point, to peruse the different word forms with similar sound / structure but different meanings listed in the lexicon amarako ha. ( The search engines are likely to pick up these words when searching for the part of the words ‘ arya /anary ‘ in the internet searches.) Each form has its unique Pā inian grammatical rule processing associated with it. The meaning of the words comes from the background of Vedas, Dharma-śhāstra’s (some of which are pre-pā inian ) and sm iti’s, may of which are post-pā inian. The awareness of the specific words, with their structure and meaning, firmly stated in Sanskrit dictionary helps to mark a reference point. * ĀRYA= Born in a noble family (mahākula- kulīna- ārya-sabhya- sajjana-sādhava .) * ARYĀ = a merchant, a man of third var a, known as vaiśhya. (Ūruvyā, ūrujā ARYĀ, vaiśhyā, bhūmisp uśho viśha .) *Anāryatikta = chiretta or a sort of gentian (gentian cherayta, Rox) *Aryamā =Name of the Sun, The primary form is aryaman with a ‘–n’ ending, masculine. *Aryā = A female of the vaiśhya var a. (aryā ī svayamaryā syāt) *Aryā ī = A female of the vaiśhya var a. (aryā ī svayamaryā syāt) *Ahārya =Mountain *Āhārya = A technical term from the nātya śhāstra for a specific class of body expression (abhinaya). *Āchāryā = A learned woman (upādhyāyā – py-upādhyāyī, syādāchāryā pi cha svata ) , āchāryā ī tu pumyoge, syādaryī kśhatriyī tathā *Āchāryā ī = The wife of a religious teacher (āchāryā ī tu pumyoge ) *Aryī = Wife of a kśhatriya or a vaiśhya.( syādaryī kśhatriyī tathā ) *Ārya =mahākula- kulīna- ārya-sabhya- sajjana- sādhava . *ĀryĀ= Wife of Śhiva ( Āryā dāk hāya ī chaiva, girijā menakātmajā) *Ārā = Awl, an implement for cutting skin ( Ārā charma-prabhedikā *Āryāvarta = Sanctified land which is identified between two mountain ranges of vindhya and Himalayas. *Bhāryā = Wife. *ĪryĀ = To stay on good conduct ( Īryā pathi sthiti ) *Charyā =wandering (vrajyā ātyā parya anam) *Āchārya = A brāhmin well versed in Vedas and who can explain and comment on veda. (mantra-vyākhyāk udāchārya ) While there is nothing extraordinary in a word undergoing phase shifts in the meaning associated with it over a period of time and society, a study of the meaning shift projected for these two words in two models of interpretation of Hinduism is of significance. This difference highlights the postulates guiding the approach in the interpretation of Vedic language documents in two traditions of study. In the current period, Bhagavad-Gita is a widely read classical Sanskrit language document, belonging to pre-pā inian period and used for representing religious – history, tenets and philosophy of Hinduism. The meaning of the verse (Ch2- sl.2), associated with Lord Sri Krishna, where the word ‘anārya-jush am’,occurs, poses an interesting challenge. The śhloka reads as follows: Kutastvā kaśhmalamidam vi hame samupasthitam | Anāryaju h am - asvargyam akīrtikaramarjuna || Here, does the word anārya here carry any ethnic background meaning or is it used in a generic sense of ‘not- noble’ without any ethnic implications? What should be the guidelines to fix the meaning of the word ‘Ārya’ in this Gita 6 reference / vedic sources ? Should it be the post period understanding (as provided by Pā inian rules) OR The past period model (meaning of the word in the vedic period, whence the linguistic approach needs to be followed? 1.2 Specific statement of the problem This boils down to the specifics of analytical investigation: a) Is Pā ini clear about the meaning of the word ārya? b) Are Pā inian rules clear for the compounding of the word ārya? c) Is Pā ini addressing / aware of the vedic documents where ārya/anārya issues are coming? how does he address the meaning issue? 1.3 Relevance of study This study is important from the point of addressing the following points: (a) the relevance of linguistic methodologies 7 adopted in the study of Vedas (b) establishing the relevance of language tools, methodologies and related reference points for understanding the classical language texts (c) claim of traditions for authenticity of undistorted transmission of understanding over a period of time, locale and generations. These issues affect the larger picture of Hindu religious identity, Sanskrit as major sacred language tradition of Hindus and traditional understanding of Vedas / sacred documents like Dharma-śhāstra/sm iti’s based on commentaries in sanskrit. 2. Analysis of the issue – Pā inan Grammar rules 2.1 Primary rule of grammar on the dissolution of the compound anārya The normal dissolution of the compound word ‘anārya’ would be made according to the pā inian rule (nañ:2-2-6; (SK= Siddhānta Kaumudi) SK 756) as follows: Na ārya / āryā = anārya (= Not ārya / ārya’s) (Note: the shift in the singular /plural form- ārya / āryā does not impact the samāsa.) The resultant of the tatpuru ha compound is a masculine gender word ending in ‘a’ , reading as ‘ anārya’ . The grammatical processing of the words are regulated by the rules (na lopo naña 6-3-73/ SK 757; tasmāt nu achi 6-3-74/ SK 758). The masculine gender is according to the rule (paravallinga dvandva-tatpuru hayo 2-4-26 /SK812). If the compounding was intended to be processed under the avyayībhāva rule (2-1-6 /SK 652), then the communication would have been ‘total absence of ārya’s’- and the word form would have been ‘nir-āryam’ – ( like nir-makśhikam) an indeclinable. The ‘na’ component of the compound can add six shades of meaning to the overall communication of the word anārya. The ‘na’ part of the compound is NOT limited to the sense of ‘not’. There are six meanings of the ‘Na’ component,which need to be inferred contextually. The six meanings of ‘Na’ are: (1) similarity (sādrśhya) (2) non-presence (abhāva) (3) uniquely distinguished from the other (tadanyatvam) (4) less than that (tadalpatā) (5) not prominent (apraśhastyam) (6) opposite ( virodha). These communications only qualify the meaning of the second word ārya in thetotal communication. The meaning of ‘na’ does not carry any meaning of race-caste-ethnicity.