The Vedic period begins in about 2000-1500 BC. Prior to that was the time of the Indus Valley Civilization. At this point, the Indus Valley civilization is quite mysterious. Scholars don't even have a consensus on whether the Aryans reached Hindustan before the climax of this civilization or during its decline. I think that scholars may do DNA tests to prove this one way or the other, but society is still at the cutting edge of using this technology. Indus Civilization Scholars are generally in agreement, in any case, that the religion of the Indus Valley is continued in some version in Hinduism, although they are not sure exactly how much, depending on whether the Civilization is seen as basically Dravidian. Thus for example there are stories of fights between gods like the well-known Indo-European Indra and other beings who could be gods particular to the Indian subcontinent. Can we establish which were the deities of the Indus Valley Civilization? What can we say about them? Wikipedia mentions a seated figure with buffalo horns in the lotus position, often thought to be a proto-Shiva Pashupati, or in some theories Rudra or a pre-Aryan version of the asura Mahisha: The discussion on yoga is interesting because it suggests a major connection between the Indus society and Hinduism. Not only is the figure in the lotus position suggesting a yogic pose, but maybe so is the image of one standing on his/her head. Wikipedia also discusses guesses that the mother goddess cult could be a version of Shakti worship and talks about a image of a being reminding of the Sumerian demigod Enkidu that fought Gilgamesh and befriended him: Asko Parpolo attempted to decipher the Indus script, with one of his chapters asking: "Do the 'fish' signs denote dieties?" He wrote: That is, Parpolo proposed that the fish sign meant the word "deity" based on how often it showed up in peoples' names and in the titles of priests. His premise was that these people would probably use the word "God" in their name. By comparison, in the Bible and in Mesopotamian and African languages, it was a normal occasional practice for their names to include the word for God. "Isaiah" and "Joshua" in their Hebrew forms are two such examples, as they include a version of the word Yahweh. (Isaiah in Hebrew is Yeshayahu, while Joshua is Yehoshua.) He says that finding a fish pictured as in a crocodile's mouth proves that it's a fish.