Nyepi: Bali Hindu New Year

Discussion in 'Asian Forum' started by Hindu, Mar 1, 2015.

  1. Hindu

    Hindu Member Staff Member

    Om Swastiastu,
    Nyepi is the Hindu Bali/Indonesia New Year. this year, Nyepi falls on March 31, 2014.
    what is the meaning of Nyepi Holy Day? how does it celebrate throughout Indonesian, especially in Bali?
    I hope below explanation benefits you all. Om shanti, shanti, shantih, Om// Ethics Meaning Nyepi Is For Self-Control Hindu religion for those embraces the teachings of the Holy Vedic literature inspired by Sang Hyang Widhi Wasa (The God). Hinduism also has a framework consisting of Tatwa (philosophy), Susila (ethics), and Upakara (ceremonies or rituals). Those three it is a unified in one which can not be separated from one another. Philosophy, Ethics and Ceremony/Rituals must be understood, internalized and implemented in order to achieve the goal of Hinduism. The purpose or goal of the Hindu religion is nothing else but to achieve spiritual peace and physical well being. In the sacred literature is called “Moksartham Jagadhitaya Ca iti Dharma” which means Dharma (religion) is to attain Moksha and reach the well-being of life, moksha is also referred as Mukti which means attain freedom of Jiwatman or lasting spiritual happiness (Upadesa: 2001, 5). Based on the above definition all the order of the feasts of the Hindu religion has a philosophycal meaning, the feast also has ethics and ceremonies as the embodiment of the philosophy. In theory, the action says that the noble values of arranging behavioral attitudes of society, in practical that theory is to dissect a Hindu ritual/ceremony, especially Nyepi also has a philosophy as a reference for implementing the ceremonies and has ethical (moral) as a standard guideline for performing the Nyepi ceremony. This means as an order of noble values contained in a Hindu holy day including Nyepi. Nyepi Day is one of the great feast of the Hindus in Bali, philosophy (tattva) and moral (ethical) which is used to all the ceremonies the Hindu Holy Days in Bali. Hindu cultural values recognized in the Yajnya ceremonies including the Yadnya on Nyepi Holy day is a spiritual force that can shape the identity of the people; as a vehicle for self-control and can be as the amplifier integration to the human beings in the sense of very universal. Nyepi Day as a Hindus Holy Day which is the peak of the Hindus identity in Indonesia because this sacred feast recognized by the central Government of Indonesia as a national holiday from 1983. Prior to that year, Nyepi Day ass only a regional holiday for Bali island! Nyepi day falls in exactly once a year, exactly on the Saka New Year. At that moment the sun towards northern latitudes, when Uttarayana which is also called Devayana sure a good time to draw closer to God Almighty or Ida Sanghyang Widhi Wasa. It stated on Sang Hyang Aji Swamandala holy scripture that, Tawur (ceremony) Bhuta Yadnya or Tawur Kesanga should be held at the dead moon of the month of Chaitra month (Tilem Kesanga), a day before Nyepi is celebrated. According to the prevailing tradition in Bali, the sequence of Nyepi begins with Melasti ceremony to Segara (Sea), The Lord at Bale Agung (village temple) next Bhuta Yadnya is held (tawur Kesanga), Nyepi, and the day after Nyepi called Ngembak Geni. The purpose of the Nyepi ceremony can be seen from the following various aspects:
    1. Religious aspect is a process of purification Bhuwana Agung (Macrocosm) and Bhuwana Alit (Microcosm) to realize the emotional and physical well-being and happiness (jagadhita and moksha) forged a life based on Satyam (truth), Siwam (chastity), Sundaram (harmony, beautiful).
    2. Allowing one-self to do penance, yoga and meditation (samadi) for each individual, this implies an evaluation of the deeds in a year and also acts as self restraint.
    3. Socio-cultural aspects is a vehicle for the integration of people, t was seen at the time of the Hindus together in the parade carrying the Lord (IT Symbols) from the beginning; from each temple throughout the days in Bale Agung temple and proceed further Melasti. Here, in this process the community’s cohesiveness appear together.
  2. Hindu

    Hindu Member Staff Member

    At the above ceremonial procession can be seen clearly deontology (ceremonies ethics) organize the implementation of the entire process. The following discussion focuses on this short article "The Ethical Meanings of Nyepi Holy Day for Self-Control" of the Hindus and other people. Ethic Meaning of the Nyepi Holy Day is for Self-Control Based on the above description Nyepi Holy Day which comes once a year which is the identity of the Hindus. At that time the Hindus in particular are taught to see themselves through, good and bad deeds of an individual. In the holy script mentioned as follows: "Man is born alone, he would also die alone, he enjoyed good deeds himself, he alone will also enjoy his bad deeds (Manawa Dharma Literature, IV. 240). Referring to the contents of the above sloka which implies either bad-good work done by a person will form his personal value. Veda asserted that through the good deeds (Subha Karma) humans will be able to help themselves and samsara to attain eternal happiness which is free from rebirth process (moksha). Moksha is moral-religious for the Hindus to carry out good deeds (Subha Karma) and avoid bad deeds (Asubha Karma) in this life (Gabde; 2000). On the sacred teachings there is also mentioned to understand the meaning of the above are analyzed and the following mantram: "Hyang Widhi just loves those who work hard" - Rig Veda, IV , 33 , 11 ). That mantram states that Hyang Widhi love hard working people. So people who want to get the blessing of Hyang Widhi Wasa had to work hard all her life . Nyepi interpreted as Self-Control As described above, Nyepi is a transitional event Caka year, the community people are expected to brood (mulat sarira) to enable them to see clearly which of their actions were good and which were bad during the period of a year. According to the ethics of Nyepi day those are implied in the Chatur Berata Penyepian, which four guidelines that have been established and should be performed by the Hindus as a manifestation of self-control and introspective with four guidelines : Amati Geni, Amati Lelanguan , Amati Karya, and Amati Lelungaan. The implementation of the above four ethics implies the following meanings:

    1. Amati Geni Amati Geni has double meanings which are: does not carry out activities related to turn on the fire or flame. Besides that, it is also as an attempt to control the attitude of behavior that is not affected by the fire of anger (kroda) and greedy (loba). According to Hindu Tattwa (philosophy) that interpret the symbols of Geni (Agni) does not symbolized as the power of Brahma as the creator. Creation associated with the ideas of someone, in this case contemplation needs to be held, whether are we generating ideas for the good of the people or vice versa. That statement expressed in various Hindu scriptures Library said that "the greatness of human beings as the creatures of God, lies in the thought process of someone which can distinguish good attitude and bad behavior (Sarasamuscaya : sloka 82). The top most control instrument of the thought processes according to Hinduism is the belief in Karma Phala (Sarasamuscaya, sloka 74). Referring to the above ethical Chatur Berata Penyepian, the implementation of Amati Geni is seen as a symbol of self control of a person in the action and behavior.

    2 . Amati Lelanguan Amati Lelanguan is a person's activities for self-control to the activities related to Wacika. Wacika is true words interact with each other and with God has been implemented or not. According to the Hindu Tattva in the sacred literature revealed in Sarasamuscaya and Kekawin Nitisastra taught the followings :
    1. The words cause success in life ;
    2. The words cause people to fail in life ;
    3. The words cause people to get the results as the axis of life, and
    4. The words cause people to have a relationship. Referring to the above thought the Hindus were taught to keep the implementing “the Parisuda Wacika” which means: a. The process of social interaction (communication) not to use rude words, b. Berate and also not causes offense and suffering (from the words we say) (Sarasamuscaya ; Sloka 75) , The above description gives us a lesson that the word (wacika) which “diparisudha” should be understood and to arrange the attitude and behavior of a person in order to this life is safe and happy.

    3. Amati Karya Amati Karya as the ethic of Nyepi that mean as self evaluation in connection with the work (karya) muses the result of work in the year and the previous year(s) if its beneficial to human life. The actualization of Amati Karya in the context of the feast is a reflection of religious mind which teaches the Hindus in the evaluation of the work as follows , that is set the work results aside for Yadnya, - To Ida Sanghyang Widhi Wasa, - To the Rshis, - To the Ancestors and - For Budhi . This is shown in the sacred literature of the Atharwa Veda III.24 . 5 and Sarasamuscaya Sloka 262. Yajnya also as an implementation of the teachings of Tri Rna. it has also been taught that through Yajnya spiritual and physical self-purification process can be done. Amati Karya also means does not do any work and also means as an opportunity to evaluate our work whether the work activity has been based on dharma, or vice versa . Good work (Subha Karma) can help people to help themselves off suffering. Work also lead to Jagadhita and as a moral savings for the Hindus to work more persistent, diligent and productive. Based on the above description that the sacred Hindu teachings view that work as Yajnya and Hyang Widhi’s decree; work can help one-self and work can determine their identity “I am working”, so I am exist, so mandated by the Hindus.

    4. Amati Lelungaan Amati Lelungaan is one of the four Berata Penyepian which serves as self-evaluation and a source of self-control. Amati Lelungaan means to stop going out of the houses (homes), during Nyepi, the road is very quiet. In a wider context that means a self-evaluation. Work evaluation related to the God; work evaluation related to the fellows and relationships with the surrounding nature whether the relationship is in order/good or not, so that we are able to judge the result of our works as objectively as possible. Quality Increased for good or degenerated, the next step we could take a stand. It is expected to be more strengthen the work quality for quality of human life. Conclusion Based on the above description, a discussion of the Ethical Meaning of the Nyepi Holy Day for Self-Control is as follows:
    1. Nyepi Day is one of the Hindu feasts that can be used as a determinant to the Hindu identity because this is the only feast followed by the Government of Indonesia.
    2. Chatur Berata Penyepian is Nyepi ethics that can be used as a self-evaluation or self-control.
    3. Nyepi theological aspects as moral embodiment religious of the capable Hindus.
    4. Chatur Berata Penyepian is a reflection for our work evaluation at least a year and were able to control the mind and self-control.
    5. The ability for self-control means need a way to be able to overcome the problems of life, the path to purify the Manacika, Wacika, and Kayika and finally able to realize the "Jagadhita ya ca iti dharma."
    By:parwati Agung

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