Persian And Arabic Ramayan

Discussion in 'Ramayana' started by garry420, Feb 7, 2016.

  1. garry420

    garry420 Well-Known Member

    Variations of Ramayan have also been found in the north, west and central parts of Asia. Between the 13th to 19th centuries, the Persian and Mogul sultanates adapted Hindu culture into Islaamic art and literature, resulting in such works as the 16th century Dastan-e-Ram O Sita and Razmnama from Persia (Iran), and 18th century Pothi Ramayan in Urdu, the language of Pakistan.

    A unique illustrated Ramayan of Valmiki translated into Persian by Sumer Chand and illustrated during the reign of Farrukh Siyar in A.H.1128(1715-16A.D.) bears 258 miniatures throwing a flood of light on the art, architecture, costumes, ornaments of the period besides highlighting the composite culture of India in the late medieval period.

    Ramayana’s theme is so beneficial for humanity that Akbar the Great ordered it to be translated into Persian along with other Sanskrit classics. Mullah Abdul Qadir Badayuni reluctantly translated it under royal pressure into Persian. Then some other prose writers and poets began to translate or compose it into Persian as it was the language of the elite and court during those days. Out of the so many Ramayanas in Persian, there are two important ones which remained neglected in spite of their admirable moral messages and excellent artistry. The first is the Ramayan-e-Masih, composed by Sheikh Sadullah Masih Panipati, the contemporary of Emperor Shahjahan and Jahangir. It was published in 1899 by Munshi Naval Kishor Press, Lucknow. The other is entitled Balmiki Ramayan, written by S. Mohar Singh who was employed in Maharaja Ranjit Singh’s army. It was published in 1890 by Ganesh Prakash Press, Lahore.

    Ramayan-e-Masih did not become popular as it was written during Jahangir’s reign when Muslim readers began to stop taking interest in Hindu scriptures. Masih became a target of hate of the fanatic Muslims for composing the Ramayana. He had to justify his stance in the beginning of his work. He spoke against the fanatics under the heading Dar Mazammat-e-Hussad (condemning the jealous). He stated that they had not taken into account the two naats in praise of the Prophet Mohammad written at the start of the epic, and Paighambarnama, his other epic poem relating the life and exploits of the Prophet.

    Though story of Masih’s Ramayana is mainly based on the Valmiki Ramayana yet he does not mention the name of that holy bard even once. Perhaps he could not read Sanskrit and wrote his book after reading Badayuni’s version. He did not divide his Ramayana into cantos or kandas as Valmiki did but wrote it in Persian masnavi style, which resembles the heroic couplet of English. He gives separate headings to all events or episodes. His diction is purely Persian and he seldom uses Sanskrit words. He uses the word zahid for Rishi Valmiki when the latter appears in his Ramayana as the provider of shelter to the exiled Sita. He embellishes his verses with similes and metaphors taken from Islamic lore.

    The main defect in his narration is the presence of anachronisms. He makes his characters do things which did not occur in the Ramayana. For example, when Sita is abducted by Ravana, Lakshmana searches for her everywhere. During that search he goes to a pond and asks the fish therein if they have swallowed her. They reply in one voice that they have not gulped her as they had done Yunas in the yore. When Ravana has Hanuman’s tail set on fire, Sita prays to the fire god (Agni Devta) to turn that fire into a rose garden as was done by God when Ibrahim Khalil Allah was thrown into flames. When Sita is highly dejected after hearing the false news of Rama’s death, Trijata consoles her by saying that none can kill Rama as he is as immortal as Issa (Christ). Kumbhkarna says to Ravana that he can easily demolish Sikander’s (Alexander’s) wall. When Sugreev is caught by Kumbhkarna, Angad goes to Hanuman and requests him to get their Rustam (Sugreev) freed from the clutches of the enemies.

    Ram belonged to the Sun dynasty and Muhammad Reza Shah Pahlavi, shah (king) of Iran (1941-1979), prided himself as Arya

    Mihir ‘Sun of the Aryans’. The shah saw himself as heir to the kings of ancient Iran, and in 1971 he held an extravagant celebration of 2,500 years of Persian monarchy. In 1976 he replaced the Islamic calendar with an “imperial” calendar”, which began with the foundation of the Persian Empire more than 25 centuries earlier. 2,500 years ago Persians practiced Mithraism which believed in sun worship. (Mithra in Sanskrit is one of the names of Sun God). Sun God worshipped by Hindus was worshipped by early Persians as Mitra Day on December 25th. The Egyptian pharos followed suit and worshipped their Sun God Amon on 25th December and the Romans following the Egyptians and Persians celebrated December 25th as Natal Solis Invicti or the festival of the invincible Sun God. The European Christians absorbed this festival and called it as the Christmas day.

    A concise book containing stories based on sections from Ramayana was. published in Arabic language in recent years. ...

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