Among one Islamic group on the southern island of Mindanao in predominantly Christian Philippines, Maharadia Lawana is unique. The Maranao people are seafarers with ethnic, cultural, and historical links to other maritime communities and sultanates in the area, so journeys by boat are common in life and literature. While some motifs may have come from Malay and Javanese traditions, the elements have evolved and changed so much between the mid-17th and early 19th centuries that the story can be considered as an independent tradition. These include ball-kicking games, rattan tightropes, and water buffalo and crocodile allies. "Rajah Mangandiri" is another oral tradition Ramayana of the Southern Philippines. Its dance drama was staged in New York in 2000.