Chhatrapati Shivaji was the 17th century Hindu King who inspired and organized the native people for the fight against the Moguls and five Sultanats (Shahas) –foreign invaders who had conquered Bharat to loot its wealth and intellect and to destroy its ancient culture and civilization. After 36 years of fighting, Shivaji established the ideal kingdom with rule of law, a Hindu kingdom, rather than a kingdom under his own name. His coronation as a king took place in 1674 A.D. on the Jyeshtha Shukla Trayodashi (13th day of the bright half of Jyeshtha Maasa) day at Raigarh in Maharashtra. His kingdom was known as “Hindavi Swaraja” (Sovereign Hindu State). Shivaji set an example for all Hindus that they belong to the same faith and should be a united force. His coronation day is therefore celebrated as Hindu Sangathan Diwas (Hindu Unity Day). Shivaji’s Guru, Samarth Ramdas, stood behind him in his quest as his philosophical guiding hand. The philosophy of Samarth Ramdas is based on pragmatism, and consists of guiding principles for living life with fulfillment, yet being responsible to family and society. Shivaji lived by these values. He achieved a great deal but also gave it back to the society., so Samarth Ramdas rightfully acknowledged him as “Shrimant Yogi,” or a person achieving desires with detachment. Samarth Ramdas was an uncommon saint, who in addition to worship of Ram (Ideal) and Maruti (Strength), spoke unequivocally of the importance of the strength of the individual, society and self-governance by defeating the foreign enemy. He eloquently wrote about the nature of humankind. He wrote 205 verses about the human mind; chanting these is a very soothing experience, making the mind pure and stable, and makes us think of each action in its logical context. In all his teachings and writings, Samarth Ramdas kept advising the practical importance of religious values. He observed that any mass movement brings strength to society, but emphasized a good philosophical foundation and faith in God for its true success. He asked people to always chant the 13 Devnagiri-letter mantra “Shree Ram Jaya Ram Jaya Jaya Ram”, and advised following “do’s and don’ts” which could be practiced at any time and place by an individual and by the society to achieve successes and higher meanings of life: 1. Keep your mind clear of evil thoughts. Purity of mind is a must. 2. Samyak among Mana, Vani, and Karma (i.e., thoughts, speech, and actions should be synchronized with each other) 3. There is God in efforts. Keep trying. Don’t idle or depend upon others to do the job. Just like thirst cannot be quenched without drinking water, you cannot achieve Moksha without efforts. 4. Perform your duties toward the samaj (community) with honesty. Be socially responsible. 5. Run your household in a well-organized manner. 6. Be sensitive to the welfare of people in your surroundings. 7. Be vigilant of evil people and be harsh with them. 8. Be vigilant about your own behavior. 9. Stay away from ego (ahamkar). 10. Become a role model for people following you. 11. Be proud and feel good about yourself and your heritage. 12. Make sure there is a purpose behind your actions. 13. Develop a strong mind and strong body. Be very careful about your sharirik (physical) health. 14. Ask God for happiness for the world and peace of mind & nirmal mati (intellect) for yourself. 15. Don’t get caught up in Maya for your personal gratification. Rather, use your resources for helping others – your family and samaj. Practicing these teachings helped Shivaji establish the “Hindu Kingdom” and change the psyche of the society. They will continue to help today in bringing forth a meaningful vision and far-reaching societal development Early Life Ramdas Swami was born in a Deshastha Rugvedi Brahmin family to Suryaji and Ranu-Bai Thosar in Jamb in Jalna District of Maharashtra on Ram Navami (the birth festival of Lord Ram), 1530 according to "Shaliwahan Shak" calendar. His given name was Narayan. As a child, Ramdas showed an inclination toward metaphysical contemplation and religion. One recorded incident tells how he was walking in the dark and bumped into something under a tree. Fetching a light, he saw a local villager who had been arbitrarily hanged by the Mughals, foreign rulers of Maharashtra. This incident fired in him a desire to be free in all aspects of the word: free from foreign rule and also free from Maya, the illusion that prevents individual souls from realizing their unity with the greater Self, Ultimate Spirit. When Ramdas was eight, his father died; and when he was 12, his mother arranged his marriage to her brother's daughter. However, he wanted to pursue a monastic life. He ran away in the middle of the wedding ceremony, before the marriage vows were exchanged. During the Hindu marriage ceremony, the last word which seals the marriage is "Saavdhan" meaning, 'be careful'. Swami Ramdas interpreted that word to mean that he had to be careful not to get entangled in the bonds of Maya, and must seek Self realization. Gaurav Shresth ............... - 11 de junho de 2010 - denunciar abuso For the next twelve years, Ramdas devoted himself to studying Hindu religious books, to meditation, and to prayers in a place named Panchavati, near Nashik on the banks of the Godavari River. At age 24 he took the name "Ramdas", meaning "servant of Lord Ram," an incarnation of God. Ramdas practised physical yoga exercises as well as meditation. The Surya Namaskara or Sun Salutation was his favourite as it involves every part of the body. It is said that he would do 1,200 Sun Salutations every day, believing that no spirituality could be attained if the physical body was not strong. In addition to his veneration of Ram, Ramdas worshipped Ram's divinely strong servant Lord Hanuman. He established 12 temples of Hanuman in Maharashtra and promoted physical exercise to develop a healthy society. His Preachings and Life Ramdas's ways were very peculiar. He appeared to the outside world as a mad man. He had a small bow. He used to have, by his side, a large number of stones with which he pelted every object he saw. To men really interested in his teachings, he gave the Mantra Sri Ram Jaya Ram Jaya Jaya Ram. Ramdas had eleven hundred disciples, of whom three hundred were women. The women disciples were also expert preachers and were virtuous. Ramdas sent his disciples to all parts of India to spread the Hindu religion. His disciples and Mutts in the North directly or indirectly helped Shivaji and his work. Ramdas's organisation in the South, round about Thanjavur, helped Shivaji's son Rajaram to go to Jinji and carry on the Twenty Years' War with Aurangazeb. When Ramdas visited Thanjavur, Venkoji, who was the step-brother of Shivaji, became his disciple. Ramdas appointed Bhimaswami, his direct disciple, as the Mahant of the Thanjavur Mutt. Last Days Ramdas generally preferred to live in the forest, where he would say, he had better meditation. In his last days, Ramdas devoted his time partly to literary activities and partly to the systematic building up of his disciples and Mutts, both in the North and in the South. The literary works of Ramdas such as Dasabodh, Manache Shlok (verse addressed to the mind), Karunashtakas (hymns to God) and Ramayana (describing only the conquest of Lanka by Sri Rama and the vanquishing of Ravana) are very popular. It was as a tribute to Ramdas's extraordinary patience and determination in rehabilitating the Hindu religion in India that people named him Samartha (all-powerful) Ramdas, a name which he richly deserved. This great Guru of Maharashtra breathed his last in 1682 at Sajjangad, near Satara, a fortress which was given to him by Shivaji for his residence. Ramdas repeated the Rama Mantra with his last breath. At the time of his departure from the world, a dazzling light emanated from his body and Ramdas was absorbed in the image of Lord Rama. The last instructions of Ramdas to his disciples were: "Do not think much of your bodily wants. Have Satsang with devotees. Keep the image of Lord Rama in your heart. Repeat the name of Lord Rama always. Annihilate lust, greed, anger, hatred and egoism. See Lord Rama in all creatures. Love all. Feel His presence everywhere. Live for Him alone. Serve Him in all beings. Make total and unreserved surrender unto Him. You will always live in Him alone. You will attain immortality and eternal bliss"