Vedic Rāmāya a Mahābhārat Bhagavad-Gītā Pā ini Time line 500 to 700 BCE Sanskrit Vedic – Non Vedic Prākrits / Tamils Patañjali Time line 200 CE Amara Ko ha Time line 500 CE Post period According to this school, the meaning of the word ‘ ārya /anārya’ centers around racial / linguistic / ethnic identity related meanings. The second school makes their case as below: Language is not limited to historicity ethnicity and usage, which stands only for one linear dimension of communication. The guiding and binding rules of language differ according to the states of consciousness/ awareness (avasthā). The states of consciousness operate in a-historical way; it has non-linear dimension and style. The language associated with highest level of consciousness is called Shruti /Parā-vāk/ veda –vāk. The totality of such expressions associated with a state of higher consciousness in a historical period and in certain families is collected together; and these are called vedic documents. These collections are classified in to the four Vedas ik-yajus-sāma-atharvan / sub divisions of Sa hita-brāhmana-āranyaka-upani hat , which comes as a part of oral tradition , for use in the ritual and spiritual applications. These are, in a way mystic /magical incantations/ expressions in a Divine language, which manifested in certain historical time period. The veil of transparent historicity is for the purpose of reckoning a human period reference. It is like putting a date on the discovery of gravity or magnetism which always existed in nature. The vedic sound clusters manifests whenever an appropriate higher state of consciousness (turīya) is experienced by any human being irrespective of time- place limitation and truths of nature are accessed. These ‘ mantra-śhruti’ expressions are to be taken ‘as they are’ and shall not be meddled with the human language paradigms and grammar model. A set of six interconnected disciplines, out of which grammar rules are one, provide help in understanding the holistic nature of these expressions of sacred naturalness in a cosmic natural language and use them for human welfare applications. The above discussion has placed the evidence to show that Pā ini has a clear understanding of the meaning of the word ‘anārya/ārya’ as not carrying any flavor of race-caste-ethnicity-var a. This understanding has been documented in the post pā inian period literature and the lexicons. The evidence to show the acquaintance of Pā ini with the details of the vedic tradition and usages is also clearly shown in the deliberation of rules.With this the issue to be resolved is the historicity perspective. What should now be the meaning of the word ārya/anārya? Should these be resolved as per Pā inian guidelines OR differently? What should be the way to explain the perception of difference in meaning of the words by two streams of scholars?What is the impact of this difference? The interpretation and understanding of the above two words is critically twined with a number of significant issuesa) what is the criterion to call a document as ‘Veda’ (b) determination of the authentic nature of the vedic text and reading, importance of accent as a critical marker (c) relevance of hermeneutic postulations made in relation to the language, historicity and legitimacy of grammar of the vedic documents. 4. Questions at large and issues for future research, Conclusion The addressing of questions raised above are beyond the scope of the present paper. To wrap up the focused issues raised in this paper, based on evidence from Pā ini’s grammar, the following conclusions are made. a) Is Pā ini clear about the meaning of the word ārya? Pā ini is clear about the meaning of the word ārya. The meaning is ‘one born in noble family’. This does not carry 10 any ethnic, caste, racial, var a flavors. b) Are Pā inian rules for the compounding of the word ārya clear?- The rules of Pā ini are clear in the matter of forming compound words with ārya. The word is used as a plain adjective without any ethnic, caste, racial,var a flavors. c) Is Pā ini addressing / aware of the vedic documents where ārya/anārya issues are coming ? and how does he address the issue? Pā ini is clearly aware of the vedic documents where the words ārya/anārya are used. These guidelines are reflected and endorsed clearly even after a gap of one thousand years between Pā ini and Amarasi ha. The traditional commentaries have gone with Pā inian rule guidance. The current tradition of Hinduism is inheriting this continuity of understanding on the word ‘Ārya’ as an adjective indicating nobility.