The Hindus were mighty navigators and pioneers of culture centuries before Columbus was born. They established their cultural empires in Java, Bali, Sumatra, Borneo, Philippines, Cambodia, Champa, Annam and Siam and ruled there until after the 14th century. WHO DISCOVERED AMERICA? Writer : Chaman Lal As the seeds of herbs and trees are carried to distant places by wind and birds, so in ancient times mankind and culture spread over the world through the tides of great Indian and Pacific oceans. The Hindus were mighty navigators and pioneers of culture centuries before Columbus was born. They established their cultural empires in Java, Bali, Sumatra, Borneo, Philippines, Cambodia, Champa, Annam and Siam and ruled there until after the 14th century. Evan today Cambodia's King bears the title of the great Varman rulers of India, and Bali has a Hindu Raja. Hindu migration to America was vigorous from the first to the twelfth century A.D. Cambodia, the ancient Kamboja, was one of the earliest to receive the culture of India. The name of its river Me Kong was derived from Ma Ganga (mother Ganges). In the first century A.D. a Brahman called Kaundinya came to Kamboja from Kanchi, the capital of Pallava kings in South India, married the Kamboja Princess Soma and was elected king of the country. Champa, at present Vietnam, figures prominently in the story of India's cultural expansion. Vietnam was the footboard for the pilgrims to America. A prince of Kalinga (Orissa) founded the Hindu State of Java in the first century A. D. Java is the ancient Yava Dveepa mentioned in the Ramayana and other Sanskrit texts. Bali Dveepa is still a stronghold of Hinduism. Borneo is the ancient Suvarna Dveepa or Sri Vijaya. On the Indonesian national flag still flutters our Garuda. From Angkor Vat to America Hinduism and its gods and temples have left their imprint. Siam was the centre of Hindu culture for centuries and boasts of rulers with names such as Rama, Praja Deepak and Dharmaraja. The same pioneers of culture who ruled such large areas in the Pacific for fourteen centuries also went to far off Mexico and Peru and established cultural empires. Ship-building Indian ship-building had developed at least 2000 years ago and according to Dr. Ekholm, Director of the Museum of Natural History in New York, and Dr. Robert Heine Geldern, there appears to be little doubt that ship-building and navigation were sufficiently advanced in southern and eastern Asia at the period in question to have made trans-Pacific voyages possible. As early as the time of Ptolemy in the second century A. D., Indian ships sailed to the Malayan Peninsula and Indonesia not eastwise but across the Bay of Bengal. In the third century horses were exported from India to the Malayan Peninsula and Indo-China on indication that there must have been ship of of considerable size.When the Chinese Buddhist scholar Fattein return from India around A.D. 400 he embarked on a ships which carried more than 200 sailors and merchants and which therefore must have been larger than the ships of Columbus and early Spanish explorers.""Ships of that size able to cross the Indian Ocean and the China Sea with their dangerous cyclones could certainly cross the Pacific as well.""According to French and British historians the Hindus excelled in the art of constructing ships and for centuries the British and the French borrowed from the Hindus many improvements in the naval architecture. Only two authorities will suffice: ""In ancient times the Indians excelled in the art of constructing vessels, and the present Hindus can, in this respect, still offer models to Europe, so much so that the English, attentive to everything which relates to naval architecture, have borrowed from the Hindus many improvements which they have adopted with success to their own shipping. The Indian vessels unite elegance and utility, and are models of patience and fine workmanship."" (Les Hindus- P. 181). ""Indian vessels are so admirably adapted to the purpose for which they are required that, notwithstanding their superior science, Europeans were unable, during an intercourse with India for two centuries , to suggest or to bring into successful practice one improvement."" (Sir John Malcolm, Journal of Royal Asiatic Society, Vol. 1) Astec Calendar The fact that the Hindus were capable of sailing to far off countries like Mexico and Peru is proved by the official historien of Mexico, who in his book published by the Mexican Foreign Office. ""Those who first arrived on the continent later to be known as America were groups of men driven by that mighty current that set out from India towards the east."" The U. S. Ambassador Miles Poindexter states in his book The Ayar-Incas that primitive Aryan words and people came to America especially from Indo-Arya by the island chains of Polynesia. The very name of the boat in Mexico is a South Indian (Tamil) word: Catamaran. After 17 years of research I can now claim to have proved my theory of Hindu colonisation of America. The stones in every corner of America speak of Hindu influences. Let us begin with the Astec calendar known as the Astec Chakra of the Hindu Astronomers. It is the foundation stone of Hindu culture in America. The ancient Americans believe in the four Hindu ages (Yugas or cycles). This Astec calendar (of Hindu origin) depicts the Hindu ages of the world. Mackenzie, author of Myths of Pre-Columbian America, says, ""The doctrine of the world's ages (Hindu Yugas) was imported into pre-Columbian America. The Mexican sequence is identical with the Hindus. It would be ridiculous to assert that such a strange doctrine was of spontaneous origin in different parts of old and new worlds."" The very sculpture of the Sun in this calendar bears the imprint of India. Game of Pachisi Witness the complicated game of Pachisi as it is played in India and Mexico. Seventy years ago Edward Taylor pointed out that the ancient Mexican game of Patolli was similar in its details to the game of Pachisi played in India and the whole region of Southern Asia. ""It seems clear,"" he wrote, ""that the Mexican game must have come from Asia."" Subsequently Stewart Culin showed that even the cosmic meaning of the Mexican game, its relation to the four quarters of the world and to the calendars ascribed to them was essentially the same as in Pachisi. Dr. Kroeber, leading anthroplogist of California, observes that ""the mathematical probability of two games invented separately, agreeing by chance in so many specific features, is very low. The close correspondence between the rules of the two games indicates a real connection."" Dr. Kroeber however could not find more evidence to link India with America and decided to leave the issue unsolved expressing the hope that fuller and more accurate knowledge would some day solve the dilemma. Dr. Robert Heine Geldern, the famous anthropologist of Vienna, and Dr. Gordon F. Ekholm have now presented enough evidence to support the thesis that Americans had definite cultural links with the people of South-East Asia at least 2000 years ago.